Easiest Way To Build Stairs – There are two different types of stairs. The first step is a factory-fabricated staircase, usually fabricated on the factory floor and shipped to the job site as components, ready for assembly and installation. The second step, carpentry stairs, is simply the stairs built by the carpenter on site. This type is less expensive to manufacture, and the stairs can be covered with carpet.
Carpenter-built stairs can be finished with solid wood or painted planks. Simple wall-mounted handrails are a popular choice for finishing any type of staircase.
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Functionality is the most important consideration when building a ladder. Maximum precision should be used for safe design. Before starting construction, you should consult not only the requirements of the national building code, but also the requirements of your local building code. Some cities have stricter regulations than others, and checking first will eliminate the need to rebuild later.
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After you determine the correct code requirements for your ladder, consider every aspect of your staircase design. Remember that the construction materials you use will determine the outcome of the final product, and quality materials will do a good job. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that it doesn’t matter if the building material is good or bad because the material will carpet and no one will see; When using low-grade materials with nodules and voids, pallets may develop cracking later on. Most lumberyards have stocks dedicated to building stairs.
After you’ve identified the appropriate codes for your municipality, you can start planning your stairs and calculations. Grab a pencil, write your plan on paper, and draw a rough outline of the staircase.
For the purposes of this example, the project will be a straight ladder. The building code we applied for this project is BOCA 96 Residential Use. This code states that your riser may be a maximum height of 7 3/4 inches with a minimum tread run of 10 inches.
Start by dimensioning the stairs, making sure to leave enough headroom to accommodate the stairs. Height matters. You must be able to go up and down stairs safely. Many stairs were torn due to incorrect calculations of this element before the stairs were built and installed. There’s nothing worse than having common sense about climbing stairs hit you on the head. In this example, the standard holes are 1 1/4 inches, each tread is 10 inches, and the headroom is 6 feet 8 inches
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Assuming the distance from one finished floor to the next (total height) is 118 inches, find the number of heights required by dividing the total finished height by 7.5. The resulting number is equal to the number of risers. Then divide that number by the final total height.
Knowing the number of risers gives you the number of pedals – 15 (the 16th riser will be placed near the top tier with no pedals on top). The stairs would then be 15 steps of 10 inches each, or a total length of 150 inches. To determine the actual overall length of the stair, the bottom riser opening and top riser thickness must be added.
Next, calculate the length of the stairs, or the width of the shaft at the floor where the stairs are located. This is a two-step calculation.
First, consider the desired height and structure of the upper floor, including the height of the floor joists, the thickness of the floor, and the thickness of the drywall. For example purposes we will calculate the total thickness of the superstructure to be 12 1/2 inches. Adding this number (12 1/2 inches) to the height needed for an 80 inch riser will give you 92 1/2 inches. Take this measurement and divide it by the height of the riser.
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The answer you get (12.542) is the number of surfaces needed in the clear aperture to allow room for height. This means there are now 2.45 processors under the header. By multiplying 12.542 (number of treads in clear hole) by 10″ (after tread depth) and adding 1 1/4″ for the notch and 3/4″ for the top riser you will get the stairwell you need Proper length to height. In our example, the length of the stairwell is 127 7/16 inches. Most stairs between two walls are 36 inches wide. To accommodate this final width, you will need an opening of approximately 37 inches.
The end result of our design program was: 10″ runway, 7 3/8″ high, 127 7/16″ stairwell length, 37″ stairwell width, 36″ stair finished width.
Now that we have instructions on paper on how to build the stairs, it’s time to start cutting. Carpenters always measure twice and cut once, which is a good rule to follow when cutting ladders. Building stairs can be expensive; you only want to buy materials once, so buy and cut them wisely.
When starting a project, make sure your work area is clean and well lit. Working in a comfortable environment can make difficult tasks a little easier.
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Lay out the stringers to start the actual staircase project. Do this by adjusting the rise and run of the stairs in the frame box. Frame square clips should adjust to 7 3/8″ x 10″. Next, determine the number of rungs and risers needed for this ladder. Always start with the first riser and end with the top riser and draw the line for the second floor. At this point it’s useful to calculate the elevation quantity so that the layout doesn’t go wrong. Repeat this process for all three reporters.
With the treads and risers marked, it’s time to make final adjustments to the stair treads. As with any well-planned artwork, modifications to the design may be required. Adjustment of the upper and lower levers may be required in order for all levers to be within specification. In our example, when adding 1 inch thicker tread to the bottom tread, the bottom riser will be 1 inch higher. At the top it’s the opposite. When we add the top tread, its thickness is reduced by 1 inch from the height of the exposed riser. To correct for this, we will subtract 1 inch from the bottom joist trim at the level portion of the stringer floor.
Once the stringers have been successfully placed, cut out the triangular sections. A chainsaw is the best tool for this job, but be careful not to go over the marked planing lines, which can weaken the stringers. The final cut of the triangle can be cut with a handsaw. Once you’ve cut all 3 stringers, put them together to make sure they all match. Three perfect matches is what you want to achieve. Anything less than three anchor points is perfect, and you might want to consider going back to the drawing board.
There are three nice stringers on the seat and you can now place the left and right slings on top of the 1″ x 12″ skirt. On each apron, trace the cutouts where the stringers meet the floor and top risers. Cut these lines and make a vertical cut at the bottom of this board at the height of the base board. Tie the skirt with two cords. The two programmers are now complete and ready to be nailed to drywall. If drywall is not in place, fill the stringers to the thickness of the drywall. Never, never, nail or screw on the studs. The center post is now ready to be installed on the top header and connected to the rails on the ground.
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Now that the stringers are in place, it’s time to double check all the cutouts. Check the level and perpendicularity of the tread cuts. Check measurements in all directions from left to right and front to back. Check top and bottom risers – is end tread height permissible? The tread thickness on the upper seat tube must be greater than 7 3/8 inches, and the tread thickness on the lower seat tube must be less.
If you’ve double checked all the cuts and are confident you’re on the right track, it’s time to cut the risers to the correct height and screw them in place. Don’t forget to nail them down for long-term durability. The tops of them should be 11-1/4 inches apart so that you don’t need to tear them out, just cut them lengthwise and glue and nail them in place.
Nail the dowels and risers to the stringers. Install through the back of the riser and into the tread for installation, always using cement-coated anchors.
Your staircase is now complete, save for the walls or handrails. Since our example staircase is between two walls, we need to attach the handrail to the wall
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