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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder involving the structural, metabolic, and molecular ultrasonography associated with a variety of areas of the brain, including various areas of the cortex, neuroendocrine, striatum, dopaminergic, adrenergic, serotonergic , and limbic pathways. There is an urgent need for novel treatment and biomarkers for PTSD, and a deeper understanding of modern imaging and spectroscopy techniques to promote new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. According to the criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Guide to Mental Disorders (DSM-V), all forms of depressive disorder in the first month after depression are considered acute depressive disorder. This condition is considered PTSD only after the symptoms have not gone away for a month. It is very important to distinguish between acute depressive disorder and PTSD for a one-month waiting period, so that patients at high risk of developing PTSD can use more comprehensive treatment early. This will increase the treatment outcomes and / or prevent the development of PTSD. Understanding the pros and cons of existing techniques as well as new emerging technologies provides valuable skills for rapid development. Traditional methods of studying PTSD have been shown to be inadequate for diagnosis, measurement of treatment effectiveness, and monitoring of disease progression. As of now in the field, no diagnostic biomarker is available for any mental illness involving PTSD. At present, emerging and available technologies are not being used to their full potential and appropriate experimental structures for the most effective studies in this area. Therefore, improved techniques are needed in PTSD research. This review reflects the current literary status of PTSD, including molecular indicators, cell phones and behaviors, possible indicators, and medical and early thinking techniques related to PTSD, as well as defining existing imaging techniques and image. Emphasize the importance of developing new technologies and real biological indicators for future research problems. However, there is no possibility of creating a biological marker for any mental illness. Because mental disorders are more complex than other medical diagnoses, textual data, metabolism, structures, and image fusion may need to be analyzed together to provide a reliable non-behavioral marker for PTSD. This will highlight the need for cultural innovation technologies to create a more innovative framework in the treatment of PTSD.
1. Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be observed in 20 to 30% of people who have experienced severe traumatic stress such as war, sexual assault and life-threatening accidents. Although about 70% of people experience severe trauma during their lifetime, the life expectancy of PTSD is reported to be 6.8% in the United States and 8% worldwide. The percentage of people who experience PTSD, in contrast to the intense stress response that lasts 1-3 weeks, depends on a number of factors, including biological gender and social and cultural factors. According to a recent meta-analysis, unintended side effects are more likely to cause acute PTSD development than accidental events (30.1% versus 11.8% respectively), but after 12 months, people are deliberately exposed. Pain indicates a high percentage of chronic PTSD (14% versus 23.3%, respectively). Refers to the patient’s diagnostic details section.2–4 Depending on the severity of the traumatic event, the initial stress experienced by the person, the number of traumatic events that a person experiences, and the individual’s immunity. Risk parameters.5
Different Levels Of Ptsd
According to the Psychiatric and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), the diagnosis of PTSD should be supported by five diagnostic units. The first (1) traumatic event that others must fall into is: a real or dangerous experience such as injury, abuse, violence or death. The DSM-V requires you to have at least one symptom from each of the following categories for PTSD diagnosis. (2) Symptoms of interference: Direct experience of event memory, acute and profound mental pain of physical responses by responding to recurring disturbing thoughts related to past events, or past events related to the event, or signs or external contexts. Associated with a tragic event. (3) Symptoms of isolation: Avoid or avoid internal or external reminders of an event, including painful memories, feelings, thoughts, and people or places related to the traumatic event. (4) Negative cognitive and emotional changes: These include inability to remember key traumatic events, negative self-determination and over-emphasized theories, misconceptions of the cause of the event, ongoing emotional state, and lack of of interest or importance. . Significant changes in the use of traumatic event, including PD6 behavior, including episodes, unpleasant emotional state, and / or lack of positive emotional experience, and (5) excessive concentration, aggressive behavior , outbursts of anger, indifference, excessive responses, and attention. stress-related disorders, chronic pain, and disability concerns.5, 7, 8
Ptsd: Symptoms And Diagnosis
Traumatic stress alters genes that alter protein performance in and around the brain, causing subtle changes in key molecular and neurochemical components associated with impact and cognitive processes, resulting in stress resistance and coping. In addition, stress alters epigenetics and further modifies gene expression. PTSD is associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines, particularly modified immune components such as IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and proteins that work for C. Fracture of the frontal lobe.10 PTS is essential for the development of psychological (re-evaluation of cognition and optimism) and biological components (neurotransmitter systems, single nucleotide polymers (SNPs), epic genetic markers, and endocrine components for development). , 12 Given the limited diagnostic capacity currently and the availability and effectiveness of PTSD therapy, more recent research has focused on identifying and identifying possible indicators of this disease. The literature suggests that changes in neurotransmitter signaling and neuroendocrine signaling in different parts of the brain may be unfortunately associated with the development of PTSD and are therefore indicators of the possibility of this disease, but currently have health limitations due to the impossibility. by measuring them automatically. . Vivo, low reliability and specific PTSD in humans, dominated. Behavioral indicators in animal models. Current studies aim to detect changes in receptor congestion using positron emission tomography (PET) or computer-assisted single photographic tomography (SPECT), and to evaluate internal blood flow using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) ) or assessment of internal blood flow. Traumatic stress in PTSD patients or non-PTSD controls compared to healthy people. Some areas of the brain that appear to be different in PTSD include the frontal lobe (PFC), insula (ins), hippocampus (hip), orbito frontal lobe (OFC), parahypocalcemia (pHIP), and amygdala ( amygdala) (amygdala). ) Cortex (ACC), hypothalamus (HT).
In this review, we present the modern imaging techniques used to study PTSD. We highlight current photography and spectroscopy techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. We present emerging technologies and their ability to overcome the limitations of existing techniques. Figure 1 presents a layout diagram showing the organization and key audit points.
2. Background 2.1. Molecular, Cell, and Behavioral Indicators of PTSD A brief list of some of the currently available cell and behavioral indicators of PTSD is listed in Figure 2 and can be divided into four main categories: diagnostic (DSM-V variables), neuroendocrine, and neurochemical . . And neurotropic indicators, genetic indicators, and immune indicators, respectively. Although currently available PTSD indicators may be helpful in medical and therapeutic diagnoses, they are currently not effective enough for effective diagnosis, drug selection or treatment of PTSD depending on the indicators alone. To diagnose and determine which treatment is most effective in treating PTSD.
Figure 2 Different biological indicators of PTSD. HPA: adrenal hypothalamic pituitary; SAM: Synergistic Establishment Mediator; ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone; CRF: cause of release of the hormone corticotropin; GCR / GR: glucocorticoid receptor; BDNF: neurotrophic factor from the brain; GABA: gamma-aminobutyric acid; FKBP5 (protein); SERT: serotonin or 5-HTT transporter; DAT: dopamine transport gene; rRNA: ribbonomal ribonucleic acid; ApoE4: apolipoprotein E; H3K27: trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 amino acids; GFAP: glial fibrillation acidic protein; IL: interaction; TNF: tumor necrosis factor I; ETC: Natural killing cells; A: T-helper cells.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
2.2 Neurotransmitters in PTSD The only approved drugs for PTSD drugs are SSRI antidepressants. Specific inhibitors of serotonin reuptake reuptake (SSRIs) paroxetine and sertraline significantly improve symptoms in approximately 50–60% of PTSD patients, but this is no greater than the placebo effect, i.e. approximately 40%. Plus, it should
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